Midea calls to launch a large RNA research project, which is comparable to the human genome program

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Since 2021, as a new type of vaccine protects millions of people from being infected with new crown pneumonia, Credit RNA (MRNA) has begun to be well known.This molecule transferred the DNA password from the nucleus to guide the production of protein.It is just one of the several types of RNA that deeply affects cell function.

Coronary virus in severe acute respiratory syndrome2TypeRNAMolecules10Among the alkali base, two bases may affectRNAFunction.Image Source:Janet iWasa and Rachel Torrez

Recently, the National Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Engineering and the Medical (Nasem) issued a report, calling for a 15 -year study to classify the thousands of RNA sequences and errors produced in the cells.This ambitious plan is called the “RNOME” project, which may stimulate the development of new disease treatment methods, vaccines and agricultural innovation.

“RNA has huge power.” Fred Tyson, director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Science Project, said that understanding RNA biology “can change our lives in many meaningful aspects and truly benefit humanity.”

RNA is not only a messenger of genetic information, but also plays a variety of roles in cells.Transfer RNA to pass specific amino acids to ribosomes, ribosomes combine proteins together, while other RNAs make genes silent or affect its activity.These RNA behaviors not only reflect their sequences, but also how they are modified before the nucleus output.Stefanie Kaiser, an analytical chemist at Frankfurt University in Germany, said that if RNA is a house, “its decoration is window and power socket” to make it play a role.

Vivian Cheung, a RNA biologist at the University of Michigan, said that most diseases are caused by RNA disorders, including Praded Willy syndrome, certain muscle atrophy, and cancer.The host cell RNA is also stared at by HIV and other viruses.This makes RNA a promising target for vaccine and disease treatment.So far, about 50 types of modifications have been recorded in human RNA.”We know that RNA messed up, but we don’t know how it operates.” Peter Dedon, a biological engineer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.

In 2021, CHEUNG and colleagues published a paper calling for large -scale research on RNA, including all its modifications.Niehs and the National Human Genome Institute (NHGRI) also organized a seminar to discuss it.With the support of Niehs, NHGRI, and the Volun Alper Foundation in the United States, Cheung commissioned Nasem to formulate a roadmap for the RNOME project.Essence

“RNOME is much more complicated than the human genome plan.” He Chuan (sound), the person in charge of the University of Chicago and the head of the NHGRI RNA Research Center of the University of Chicago, added that for the given RNA molecules, researchers must not only record the sequence, but also recordThe type and location of the modified.

Carolyn Hutter, director of NHGRI genome science, said that Nasem proposed not only sequencing work, but a project focusing on “empowering technology and infrastructure”.It sets a series of 5 -year goals and recommends the establishment of the “RNA core center” to cope with these goals.In 10 years, the RNOME project will record all the modifications of RNA in some characteristic human cell lines.

According to a report released by Nasem, the National Institute of Health (NIH) should cooperate with international partners to establish a centralized RNA database and formulate how to describe their rules.

Due to the lack of practical methods to directly decipher RNA, researchers have to convert them back to DNA for sequencing. This conversion can remove any modification.The report calls for improving chromatography and mass spectrometry technology. These technologies can identify chemical modification on the RNA chain, but it is not yet determined that they have occurred in the sequence of more than 100 base leaders.

The sequencing company Oxford Nanopore Technologies has developed a biochemical kit and software that directly sequencies the RNA, and is studying the method of capturing modification.The company’s technology passes the gene chain through a tiny protein hole and detects the identity of each base base from the changes of the current.Adryien Leger, a senior computing biologist at the company, said that by the end of this year, the sequencer they developed will be reliable to detect the three most common modifications of each base.

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